There are numerous criteria that allow a person to make reliable, credible, valuable, and relevant high-quality peer-reviewed research using critical thinking frameworks and appropriate evaluation criteria. This paper aims to observe the most important stages of the psychological research.
A Specific Research Question
In modern psychology, researchers pay more attention to ideographic areas related to the study of personal, professional, and business qualities of the individuals, their state and degree of adaptation to the difficult socio-economic conditions. It is obvious that the term “human factor” plays a huge role in everyday life. The increase of man-made disasters proves that the development of civilization is accompanied by more advanced techniques, which in turn imposes more requirements for the person who is managing them. In connection with the existing problems, the prevailed earlier nomothetic approach in studying the general laws of development of mental processes went by the wayside. The research aimed at studying the individual characteristics of a specific person, their character, abilities, cognitive functions, and ways of experiencing stress has become relevant today. In addition, the modern environment has a clear need for the development of differentiated measures of psychological support for people caught up in the psyche of traumatic circumstances such as terrorism, migration of the population in the zone of paramilitary action, man-made disasters, and natural disasters.
According to the research, the complex vicissitudes of modern life associated with the destruction of the old socio-economic foundations have not yet been successful attempts to establish new relations of production that lead people to the severe maladjustment, which in turn makes them victims of zombification by political extremists and religious fans, adventurers or mentally ill power-hungry individuals.To counter the false directions, a modern psychologist must be armed with evidence-based approach. In this regard, there is a need of reliable tests to identify individual characteristics of a person, their emotional sphere, the motivation, the hierarchy of values, and the severity of the social and psychological maladjustment. It is also important to identify personal characteristics, which can be used by a researcher to develop professional criteria for selection, placement, integration, and production of teams. Therefore, a search for the most feasible and universal way to incorporate the knowledge about every particular person is a topic of high demand when considering their interaction in a group.
Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge
One of the most important characteristics of scientific knowledge is its reliability. As a rule, the results are considered reliable if measurements are repeated. Furthermore, to check credibility, the researcher provides a scientific control that includes the examination, review, and opposition. If the experiment is valid, researchers may have some confidence in the fact that they have been measured precisely what they want to measure. In any scientific study, the researcher must be able to answer the following questions: whether there is a relationship between two variables; whether there is a causal relationship in nature; whether there is a significant relationship; and so on. The relevance of the research determines the degree of its importance at a certain time and in a certain situation. It also shows the need to study the scientific problems in general practice.
The presence of a critical way of thinking can be considered the basic foundation for the formation of diverse and high-quality peer-reviewed research. Such research involves the accumulation of facts. Without systematization and generalization, without a logical interpretation of the facts there can be no science. Facts become an integral part of scientific knowledge if they act in a systematic summary form. Based on the general and specific methods of research, the scientist receives an answer where to begin the research, how to generalize facts, and which way to go to conclusions. Jay and Hersen believe that scientific knowledge is fundamentally different from the blind faith or unquestioned acceptance of a true position without any logical and practical verification. This is especially true in the case of communication within large group of people, which was chosen as the research topic, as even tiny details in the whole variety of hypotheses should be taken into account and justified.
The Main Research Methods, Strategies and Techniques
The main research methods are observation and experiment. They are used in many sciences. In order to respond to a research question in psychology, a researcher should cohesively synthesize high-quality and relevant literature through integrating multiple critical thinking tools. The main direction of its movement toward the more complete understanding of the human personality is defined by the link between theory and research because the experiment serves as an indicator to test the theory. It should be noted, however, that the theory is never fully tested. The more experimental results confirm the hypothesis, the greater the credibility of the theory is correct in the explanation of certain aspects of human behavior. If the research conducted in an attempt to confirm the predictions derived from the theory constantly fails, a researcher is likely to subject the question and recognize that the hypothesis and the theory are incorrect themselves.
The observation method involves the explanation of mental phenomena in the process of its perception. Targeted scientific observation is based on a certain theoretical hypothesis that is carried out according to a previously developed plan, and its progress and results are clearly recorded. The method of observation is used in connection with product research method activity, which allows determining person’s abilities and their level of knowledge and skills. Furthermore, other methods and techniques can be rather helpful, such as method of questioning and, in particular, method of clinical interview.
The literature reveals that experimental method encourages a researcher to create special circumstances, stimulating expression of the certain psychic phenomena that establishes the impact of certain factors on its appearance and dynamics. The experiment is performed as many times as is necessary to identify the relevant laws. A psychological test is another technique that is used by researchers. Usually, it is a brief, standardized and time-limited test of reference for the establishment of specific individual characteristics of the subject. According to Granello, testing is widely used to determine the level of intellectual development, spatial orientation, psychomotor, memory, and ability to the profession, personal qualities, and others. Furthermore, the biographical method of research is often used to identify the key factors in the formation of the individual, his or her life, the crisis periods of development, and socialization features.
My Personal Goals for Research and Scholarship in the Field of Psychology
Before starting the process of research, I should select a topic of study. Then, I will conduct an exhaustive review of literature that relates to the subject. In the end, I will determine which questions need more research. It is important to examine academic journals and books to assess my study. First of all, I will formulate the hypothesis, then I will collect data (quantitative, qualitative or both), examine it, and reach a conclusion. My work will contain experiments, analysis of statistical data, and testing. My goal will be to study and observe clients’ behavior in natural settings.
In order to receive a scholarship, it is necessary to take part in weekly scholarly seminars, work on the articles where I can be listed as the first author, and so on. It is also important to work in a team with other students and share ideas with each other. Thus, all scholarly activities are important to becoming a psychology practitioner-scholar.
I realize that in order to achieve my professional goals and reach specialized career path, I should work with professional literature, take part in scholar seminars, learn best experience, and observe people’s behavior. My direct participation in experiments, testing, and observation is also of the greatest importance.
Research work is the process that requires various personal and professional qualities. In order to achieve my professional goals and contribute into my future career, I should complete many tasks relevant to my research, implementing my original thinking, knowledge in psychology as well as in other relating disciplines. It is clear that critical thinking frameworks and appropriate evaluation criteria can serve as a great help in my specialized career paths.