The world started through settlements along rivers. The settlements later grew into cities or towns. The inhabitants developed specialized activities such as the centralization of a bureaucracy and the practices of skilled labor. The diverse cities required food production activities which led to efficient minorities. Some communities engaged in administrative roles which made them capable of running the state. The cities grew as their populations were filled by thousands of people they began to divide work where each individual was required to perform a particular task. People lived in accordance with their wealth and, sometimes, mixed with other communities when they lacked raw materials, food, and luxurious products. The human community developed to advanced levels of sophistication, which formed civilization. The civilizations were ruled by kings. Some of the rulers in these cities were good while others were bad. This research will discuss the great accomplishments and the different personalities of Alexander the Great from Greece, Cyrus the Great from Persia, and Hammurabi from Mesopotamia, as well as the end to their greatness which was denoted by death.

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great came from the city of Greece. He ruled after his father, who was able to unite the city-states of Greek. He ruled from 336 B.C.E and swore to finish the works that his father had initiated. In his accomplishments, Alexander destroyed the Persian Empire through conquests. He influenced the Greek culture, a situation that enabled him to obtain his ambitions. He experienced three influential battles and demanding years of war when he destroyed the Tigris River. As noted in the above, many people settled along the rivers. Alexander knew that he could obtain defense by conquering the cities with a bitter foe. He felt that his ambitions were not satisfied during his war with the Persians. However, he conquered Egypt and established a city, which he named Alexandria. The city became the center of arts, trade, and ideas. Alexandra’s personality depicted that he was intelligent and ferocious. It is evident that would arbitrarily kill his friends and close advisors. He also slaughtered thousands of people who aroused his anger, especially towards the end of his diverse campaigns. He continued his campaigns until he reached the Indus River and India in 326B.C.E. During this period, his army refused to fight further due to fatigue. They told him to stop fighting if he was a great leader. Alexander lacked the support of his army and turned back to consolidate and organize his empire. While going home in 323B.C.E, he died from a disease.

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Cyrus the Great

Cyrus the great established the Persian Empire. He succeeded his father as king in around 558 B.C. One of his accomplishments is that he conquered the Lydian Empire that was ruled by a rich man Croesus. He conquered diverse campaigns and made the kings his prisoners. He also incorporated regions such as the Eastern Iran and integrated it in his empire. Some cities such as Babylon surrendered in defeat without going into war. He issued the first decree of human rights whereby he acknowledged that he would not terrorize people. In this, he also affirmed that he was concerned about the well-being of people. In his personality, Cyrus was a humane ruler because he released the Jews to Palestine after conquering Babylonia. The Jews loved him and considered him as “the anointed of the lord.” Besides, he allowed the people to live in harmony and peace after incorporating their cities into his emperors. He also united the three great empires; Medes, Babylonians, and Lydians and extended the ancient Middle East to the Mediterranean Sea from India. His humane personality was also reflected by the fact that he strived to end slavery and misfortune. He was, therefore, murdered in a war in Central Asia after which the Persian Empire lived in affluence and peace for a period of 200 years before the invasion by Alexander the Great.

Hammurabi from Mesopotamia

Hammurabi is the most celebrated and best known king of Mesopotamia. He maintained order in his kingdom, which was the reason he compiled lists of laws from the collection of the 282 laws. He controlled more than 50 square miles of the Babylonian territory. He conquered other states, a condition that empowered his empire. He strived to unite the diverse groups which he ruled. Hammurabi was intelligent as he knew the requirements of his objectives. He was confident that he required a universal set of laws to conquer the numerous people. He used his expertise to send legal experts to gather the accessible laws. Some of the laws needed to be changed, reviewed, or eliminated before they were filed in the list of the 282 laws. The laws enabled Hammurabi to enlighten his ruling. He was a justifiable leader because he aimed at making justice in the land. He also destroyed the evil-doers and the wicked people. He ensured that the weak persons were not injured by the strong. He based his work on the laws which provided a compassionate argument. He aimed at protecting orphans and widows from exploitation or harm. His personality is also grounded on his harsh intentions of revenge and justice. He used the phrase, “an eye for an eye” as his whole code of operation. The code enabled him to distinguish the punishment that was suitable to the noble or wealthy persons, slave, and commoners or lower-class persons.


It is apparent that the ancient leaders; Alexander the Great from Greece, Cyrus the Great from Persia, and Hammurabi from Mesopotamia, had different personalities. The end of their greatness was denoted by death. From the aforementioned context, it is also clear that Alexander the Great was a harsh leader. He conquered cities and made them his empire. He was also a fierce leader who would go to the extent of killing his close advisors and even friends. His personality is unique compared to that of Cyrus and Hammurabi. Nevertheless, he was a hardworking and intelligent leader because he fought by himself even when his army decided to leave him, the reason he was killed in a battle. Cyrus the Great was also a harsh leader. It is apparent that the Babylonian army surrendered in defeat even without going for war. This meant that he was highly revered by other cities. Compared with Alexander, he was a humane leader who pitied the Jews even after conquering Babylonia. Like Alexander, Crus, too, was killed in a battle. Hammuradi was revengeful, unlike the other two leaders. He use the phrase, “an eye for eye,” meaning that he was ready to retaliate. He was compassionate because he fought for the rights of the widows and the low-class persons. In short, each of the leaders had significant accomplishments. Their efforts make them the best leaders of the ancient history.

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