Survey of World Literature

Confucius used instructional method of teaching since this method can be easily followed and, therefore; one is able to understand and to comprehend. In particular, Confucius used presentations (lectures) and demonstration as a method of teaching. These methods of teaching are still used to date. In demonstration, Confucius taught using examples. He also gave lectures which were the commonly used instructional method even before.  He believed that for his disciples and followers to understand and adopt his teaching well, he had to live them and be an example.

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Lectures served well in relaying history, experience, theories and backgrounds and sharing information to the audience. Though, lectures are one way mode of communication one is able to reach a large number of peoples at ones. He allowed his followers to ask questions and, through this, the follower gained more insight and feedback from him. Through discussion, Confucius was able to reach individual he was teaching personally. Also, through discussion Confucius believes that he can reach to every individual he was teaching well.

Confucius used the common language such as metaphors to describe a deeper truth. By relating his ideas to natural events, his students were able to see in experience and, this reminded them of higher ideas. Confucius also loved to discuss poetry and songs with his students. From this poems and songs, Chuang Chou drew many lessons to the students. Confucius also used human examples in illustration of various lessons. He also used aphoristic sayings many of which are now well known proverbs.  

Chuang Chou argues that identifying one organ of a body to be supreme, conflicts with the implicit intentions which offers a natural basis for morality. He says that all part of the body grow together in adapting life encounters.  The heart does acquire a proper direction from its upbringing. He says that our ordinary and natural goal without some kind of skewing and loss is partial. 

Chuang Chuo suggests that one should act without any conscious aim or intent. A person is supposed to act without any self aware, preconceived reason or purpose. One’s actions should be solely guided by his or her inner power. A person becomes harmonized with reality after realizing him/herself. In the dream about the butterfly, Chuang Chou identifies the distortion that might occur between the real and the unreal.

From Sharman’s story, transformation is the concern of the second type of altered state. It is concerned about his own life and death. He believes that one is born with characteristics which are common to all human beings. This makes one understand others. He says that what makes a difference in human life is nurturing of the in one self. He says that one should not become passive or surrender him or herself mindlessly to Heaven.

Chung Chuo explains freedom outside the social contexts. Freedom is not to be abused as license. He outlined a mode of non-egotistical action. This mode adapts the idea of uselessness to human situations.  This is where one acts without conscious aim or intent.

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