Hegemony denotes a cultural, social, economic and ideological influence or dominance of a country over the others (Caraley 14). Hegemony depicts a situation where a leading nation will extend its influence above other countries indirectly. The size of a hegemon and the extent of its influence over other nations cannot be represented geographically or be measured by a population.
United States policy makers vied for primacy with Soviet Union over Middle East during the cold war. United States introduced measures after the World War II such as Marshall Plan. The measures were meant to encourage development of liberal subsystems. United States collaborated with Britain to introduce these measures which also led to creation united nations which was to govern such subsystems. The major economic account of United States hegemony was introduction of subsystems like World Bank, and the IMF. The united states-led open, economic, liberal subsystem was founded on monetary regime (Moore para 13). These include some of American influence before the end of Cold World War.
Once the Cold World War was over, America gained influence in force and also became economic leader of its subsystem. American homogeny has influenced the operations in the Middle East for the last decade. United States prestige has had great political impacts in Middle East. When America identified Taliban and Saddam Hussein as their enemies, it caused US enemies to come out of the wood and the supporters of America joined hands with them. The homogeny actually has increased after the Second World War with America influencing the major events in the world.
Before America became hegemon, Britain was the most influential country in the world. The change occurred during the onset of 19th century. This has really changed America has exercise of hegemony. Since it took over from Britain America has become influential in the worlds peace and economic growth. It was quite different from the way it exercised hegemony before, when it was mainly focused on the country’s individual growth.
According to theory of hegemonic stability, unipolarity can be a tool that shall facilitate stability in the world (Florig para 6). Unipolarity arises in situations where we have a super power nation in the world. Mostly the super power country will be the hegemon and will influence more the progress of other countries. In broader view, hegemon may affect the political system, economic status and general operations of most countries. Therefore, hegemon has the ability to maintain some degree of stability of this unipolar world which may be through its military power and economic development.
Hegemon is the nation with super powers and mostly it may be categorized amongst the most powerful nations. The nation is likely to achieve benefits more especially from the existing world order. The hegemon will therefore, have a role of keeping such systems functioning to increase its chances of benefiting. Unipolarity enhances hegemon military power to be involved in peace keeping processes and in bringing down any challenger of such order. This will certainly improve world’s stability.
Hegemon economy is considered to be an engine that will facilitate economic growth and development internationally. Mainly a hegemon will act as a political broker to moderate conflicts that may occur between other powers so that it will maintain its network of alliances. These interventions are helpful as it will hinder such conflicts into escalating to a serious dispute. Hegemon also will often be the source and propagator of ideas concerning order and security. A hegemon will seek to introduce other states into global order and plays a major role to control international security, and economic relations. This plays a great role in encouraging words stability.
Therefore, unipolarity, though may be viewed as a dangerous factor as it may entice the hegemon into abusing its powers, it can play a very important role in facilitating world’s stability. This can easily be achieved through its military powers where it will be able to intervene in a dispute between countries to bring forth imperative peace. Hegemon also can inspire presence of stability in the world using its economic strength.
United States is regarded as a hegemon, and therefore, it will work in favor of many countries in the world for America to continue playing the role of global hegemon. United States has been in the front line in making sure that peace prevails in the world and also in ensuring economic growth of various countries. It has been involved in several activities that are meant to propagate stability in the world.
America has continuously fought for peace in the world to maintain stability. Looking at America’s history as a hegemon, the country has led missions that are meant to eradicate individuals who are against peace. United States has been involved in fighting terrorism in the world and this is supported by the recent killing of Osama bin Laden who endangered lives of many. America as a hegemon has also been part and parcels of fight for freedom, especially in countries which have suffered from bad leadership and have went to the extent of using their military prowess in facilitating peace in such countries. A good example of this is in the involvement of the United States in the Middle East (Sweet para 2).
United States has greatly contributed to the current economic growth of several countries in the world. This has been achieved through the countries offering grants to the poor nations. The country contributed in the introduction of subsystems in the world that have brought economic change in the world. These subsystems include the World Bank and the IMF which have supported the world’s economic growth (USAID para 3).
The part that united states have played in maintaining peace and stability in the world, makes the country to have a chance to continue being global hegemon. The country has been in the front line in making sure that peace prevails in the world and also in ensuring economic growth of various countries. This has supported world stability and has brought out United States as a hegemon.