Formation of Tornadoes

Tornadoes are reported to develop from super-cells. It is claimed that the most intense tornadoes result from these super-cells and in most cases are accompanied by very heavy rains which have frequent lightning. A simple explanation for the formation of the tornados starts from the sky whereby a mesocyclone approaches the ground. This is usually visible as a funnel descending down to the ground from the sky. This often takes place in the form of rotating wall cloud which forms the rear flank downdraft (RFD). It has been reported that once the RFD touches the ground then a tornado is said to have formed. The just formed tornado is said to be very destructive at this moment with an ability to cause destruction some good distances from the tornado base as at that particular moment. It is said that as tornados are most destructive at this point because of the moist air that they contain.  The next section analyses the types of tornadoes which have been identified (Anderson et al., 43).

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It is reported that tornadoes can take a range of colors. The colors will depend on the environment in which the tornado is formed. It is reported that tornados which form in the dry lands are usually not easily seen and are marked with moving debris at the ground link of the tornado. The tornados take the color of the debris swept along with it as it forms along the ground. Generally, if the tornado is travelling over the land and picks up little or no dust then it will take up a grey color. If the tornado is travelling over water mass then the color turns blue and at times very white. Tornadoes travelling over Great Plains often turn red because of the reddish soil covering the ground. Tornados often turn very white when they travel over grounds which are covered by ice (Walter 175). 

Rotation, sound and seismology

The tornados normally rotate in a cyclonical direction though it has been reported that there are a number of others which rotate anti-cyclonical direction (Greg 1). Tornados have been reported to produce various sounds. The most popular sounds reported to be produced by the tornados include that of a freight train, sounds similar to those of a might waterfall, and sounds similar to a jet taking off at a very close proximity. At times the sound can be a combination of all these sounds producing as scaring sound which at times as been hard. It has been reported that many tornados are not audible at far distances and the transmission and audibility of the sound has been associated with the atmospheric conditions.

It is reported that the sound produced by the tornados are due to turbulent eddies which are produced by the strong winds as they interact with the debris on the ground. The funnel clouds have also been reported to make a significant contribution to the production of the sounds. The funnel clouds have been reported to, “whistling, whining, humming, or the buzzing of innumerable bees or electricity, or more or less harmonic sound,” though many of the tornadoes are claimed to produce, “a continuous, deep rumbling, or an irregular sound of noise” (Abdul 214).

Apart from the audible sound, tornadoes have been said to produce some inaudible sounds which are only identified by scientific instruments. Howard (1998) the following in relation to inaudible tornado sounds:

Unlike audible signatures, tornadic signatures have been isolated; due to the long distance propagation of low-frequency sound, efforts are ongoing to develop tornado prediction and detection devices with additional value in understanding tornado morphology, dynamics, and creation (Howard 3).

It has been reported that tornados are produce some kind of light. However, it has been explained that this is usually due to reflection which takes place against the tornado funnel. The tornados have been reported to exhibit variations in the temperatures pressure and moisture. It has been reported that the temperatures decrease as the distance to the tornado decreases (Lee 56).

Electromagnetic effects

It has been reported that tornadoes emit magnetic rays. This has been because of similarities which have been observed between lightning and tornados. According to Perez et al., (1997):

Types of tornados

Three main types of tornados have been identified: multiple vortex, waterspout and land spout.

Multiple vortexes

This is a type of as tornado which has a center with two or more funnel columns. This type has been associated with the intense tornadoes though it is claimed that this can occur with any type of circulation. In this type of tornadoes there is a small column which orbit around the main column. If not carefully observed the small column may not be visible (Anderson et al., 45).

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