"Truth is incontrovertible, malice may attack it and ignorance may deride it, but, in the end, there it is" these were the word said by philosopher Winston Churchill on his philosophical stand point of truth. Philosophically, truth is the state of being in concurrence with a particular fact, reality or an event. Truth also entails the aspect of an individual having the fidelity to an original or a standard fact. In order to understand why different philosophers have different viewpoints regarding the issue of truth, it is vital to understand the theories of truth. These theories tend to bring up an explanation and understanding to an individual concerning the questions such as what constitutes truth, and whether truth is subjective or objective, absolute or relative (Sandra, 2007). The major functional theories about the philosophical standpoint of truth include the following.
These theories of truth state that true beliefs and statement have a correspondence to the real state of affairs. The correspondence theories bring in a state of relationship that exists between the thoughts and statements on one side and the things or objects on the other side. According to the classical Greek philosophers' viewpoints such as Aristotle, Socrates and Plato on the issue of truth, this theory entails that the state of truth or false of a representation has much contributions to the in the belief that uniquely has relation to things and whether. A good example of the correspondence theory of truth is by the thirteen century philosopher/theologian by the name Thomas Aquinas with his quote that "Truth is the equation or the adequation of things and intellect". This theory works in the assumption that the aspect of truth is matter that involves the process copying the objective realty accurately and then converting it into a representation in the spoken word, thoughts and other symbols (Sandra, 2007).
These theories in general state that the truth requires having a proper fit of elements within the entire system. This is an implication of the need of an individual to have more than the normal logical consistency. This means that there exists a demand that the intentions and suggestions in a coherent system provide mutual inferential support to each other. The coherence theories differentiate the beliefs of rationalist philosophers in particular Spinoza, Leibniz, and G.W.F. Hegel (Sandra, 2007).
According to social constructivism, the truth is usually constructed by the social processes, is historic and has a culture specification and in addition is in molded via the power struggles within a society. Constructivism outlooks all of our awareness as constructed due to the fact that it does not have any reflections of any external superior realisms. Reasonably, views of truth are viewed as dependent on convention, human awareness, and social experience. It is supposed by constructivists that the representations of physical and biological reality in an individual, including race, sexuality, and gender have a social construction (Sandra, 2007).
This theory entails the perspective of holding the truth on whatever conclusion that is agreed on by either a specified group of human individuals. Philosopher Jürgen Habermas is known to be in support of this theory. According to Habermas, the truth is the agreement that is agreed upon in an ideal speech situation. However, this theory has received some critics from philosophers such as Nicholas Rescher (Sandra, 2007).
The pragmatic theory of truth was introduced around the turn of the 20th century by three philosophers namely, Charles Sanders Peirce, and William James. Despite the fact there exist wide differences in standpoint among these and other supporters of pragmatic theory, they hold in common the definition that truth is verified and defined by the results of putting an individuals notions into practice. They came up with a common definition of truth ad the following quotation. "Truth is that concordance of an abstract statement with the ideal limit towards which endless investigation would tend to bring scientific belief, which concordance the abstract statement may possess by virtue of the confession of its inaccuracy and one-sidedness, and this confession is an essential ingredient of truth" (Sandra, 2007).
Having looked at the above major theories of truth as supported by different philosophers, it is vital to analyze the arguments of some of the philosophers' standpoints on the issue of truth. From that analysis, one is able to seethe main reason and the facts that contribute to the different theories of the aspect of truth in different philosophers.
The Philosophical Standpoint of Truth by Aristotle
Probably, the greatest and the most influential among the students of Plato was Aristotle who founded his own school of philosophy in Athens. Philosophically, the works done by Aristotle have much reflection from the teaching s he gained from this teacher Plato. The nature of the truth was one of the logical works discovered and done by Aristotle. In usual conditions human beings tend to tend to determine the truth of a matter via an individual's reference to his/her experience in the conveyed reality. Contrary, Aristotle that a there came a times when special and unique difficulties in the aspect of the truth arose in certain situations (Ross, 1941).
According to Aristotle, despite the fact that an individual can discover the truth of the falsity of a situation regarding the both the past and the present situations, suggestions about the future usually have problems. He argued out in the perspective that if a suggestion about tomorrow is of truth, or false in the today's setting, therefore the future event that is being described by it will have the probability of happening or not, however, if the suggestion is neither true or false, there happens to the absence of the future at all. His solution to the aspect of truth was the maintenance of the fact that the disjunction is essential today despite the fact that neither of its disjuncts is in existence (George, 2006). Therefore, it is vital for an individual to note that tomorrows event may occur or not.
The Philosophical Standpoint of Truth by Plato
"And isn't it a bad thing to be deceived about the truth, and a good thing to know what the truth is? For I assume that by knowing the truth you mean knowing things as they really are". These in one of the quotes from the Plato's philosophical standpoint on the aspect of truth a reality. Plato is on of the greatest known philosopher for the past period of 2,500 years. The simple viewpoint of the truth in philosophical perspective according to Plato was that the truth is basically a foundation by which our lives are based on. This is a simple implication that a human being can always be caught in a lie despite the fact that you cannot be messed up by the truth. Therefore, a life of truth positively affects other aspects such as democracy and morality. His work has endured for a lot of years and for that reason he can be called a great philosopher. Plato's conclusion on a philosophical perspective is that the presence of philosophy and truth in an individual is of much importance to the contribution to the individuals' wisdom (Jeremy, 2009).
The Philosophical Standpoint of Truth by Socrates
The most exciting and influential philosophical thinker in the fifth century was Socrates. He was a geek philosopher, whose most of his work was from Plato, according to his philosophical viewpoints on the issue of truth; he suggested that truth has the need to be pursued via the modification of an individuals' situation via questioning and conflict with contrasting ideas. It is basically this idea of the truth that is being pursued, rather than discovered, this was the characterization of Socrates thought and much of our viewpoints in the contemporary world. For instance, the Western idea of dialectic is slightly Socratic in nature in the manner that it is considered of as a continuing process. However, despite the Socrates claims to have come up with no other truth than that he/she knows no truth, the Socrates of Plato's other previous discussions is of the opinion that truth is somehow attainable (Tyler, 2005).
On my own point of view, the issue of truth in the philosophical perspective is an issue that has been a major subject in philosophy. In fact this topic has been discussed for many thousand years and is still being discussed up to date. The co relation of philosophy and the aspect of the truth is the fact that several of the issue in philosophy relate to the truth by either relying on the truth aspect or either having an implication on issue. This is possibly the main reason there exist different theories that philosophically try to explain the aspect of truth. The issue of truth is in a way easy to put into a statement, what truths entail, and the reality behind the truth. But this simple statement masks a great deal of controversy as seen in the different viewpoint by different philosophers on the same issue of truth as seen in the earlier discussions on he three philosophers in this paper.