Human behavior is about physical as well as mental appearance of a man kind. Both body language and intellect matters to human behavior or is reference to his/her behavioral traits. Human life has many stages where the behavioral traits emerge and changed significantly and sometime dramatically. It can be in positive way or pessimistic way all depends on the factors and environment available to the personality. It is fact that every personality has equal ingredients, but, is also reality that environment and factors involved in lifespan can change personalities and behaviors.
Elements that Influence the behavior:
Psychology is study of human behavior that influences nature and personality. It is now thoroughly determined that nature have great influence on personality. Everybody has his/her own nature and psychological perpetual. The elements that affect the nature and human behavior are defined as under:
Brain and nervous system:
The nervous system in humans is infinitely complicated and billions of nerve cells function in it. This nervous system is also the biological basis of the human personality, behavior, and emotion. The two major parts of the nervous systems are central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord while the peripheral system consists of the sensory and motor nerves. The whole nervous system is responsible for the coordination with all parts of the body and ensures the integrated functioning of the various systems of human body. A good personality and nature is based on a powerful nervous system, which helps a person to delicately handle the circumstances and problems.
Sensation and perception:
Human personality is greatly influenced by the way they sense and perceive things, nature has gifted them with five senses; vision, hearing, taste, smell and touch. All these senses are important to give an input to the nervous system so that It can give a desired output in the form of a particular behavior, say, close eyes when experience flash. The sensation and perception is also essential for a strengthen personality, it gave and increase the intuition sense to get a super perception which relates to a good nature and great personality.
Consciousness also plays a huge role in shaping different behaviors at different situations. It is a state of awareness of the senses, perception, emotions and the surroundings of a situation. It is the interaction of the human’s inner world to the outer world. For instance, during sleep the state of consciousness is different than during day time. A strong personality needs strong consciousness.
Emotion and motivation
The emotions and motivations are largely comprised on the mental processes and frequency compatibility between body and mind. This compatibility depends on the capability of amygdala which performs the function of connection between mind and body. The information we get through our limbic system is processed by amygdala after this process perception perceived by us which can be sensational or emotional. The emotions generate motivation; information ultimately causes to feel sensation that may be pleasant or unpleasant. So, mind is the most sensitive and important element of a human being’s body. And personality is largely based on the performance of amygdala which gives frequency to mind and body of a person.
Health and well being:
Health and well being are studied under the humanistic psychology and are very important for the individuals to develop positive behaviors and a strengthen personality. We know humans strive for the good throughout their life; health is above all things to really live a good life. It is one of the basic needs of humans to stay well and healthy so that they can perform their social roles with a prosperous personality. The struggling individuals and their behaviors must be linked to their health and well being.
Various developments occur throughout the life span of human beings. There are significant developments occur during the life cycle of humans like, physical development, cognitive, sexual and personality development. A good psychologist can not ignore the human developments and their role in the human psychology. In all respect the development process should not be slow down or stopped, if it happens it will stop the growth of personality and have negative impact on nature.
Environmental affects on human behavior, learning and experiencing, cognitive prospective influencing human behavior, Social and cultural influences on human behavior, psychological influences on human behavior.
Biological and environmental aspects on human behavior:
Most modern viewpoints recognize that both biological and environmental factors are influential, but there is disagreement over the relative importance of the factors for different aspects of development. Earlier biological extremists argued that biology is destiny. And development t is merely a matter of maturation. Maturation is the term used to describe biological processes that these theorists assume governs development. They believed that the course of development is largely predestined and predetermined by genetic factors. One early advocate of this view was Arnold Gesell, who suggested: “All things considered, the inevitableness and surety of maturation are the most impressive characteristics of early development. It is the hereditary ballast which conserves and stabilizes the growth of each individual infant” At the other extreme, some early theorists, such as the behaviorist John B Watson placed their emphasis strictly on the environment. Watson assumed that biological genetic factors place no restriction on the ways that environmental events can shape the course of development.
Learning & experiencing aspects on human behavior:
Learning is a development that comes from exercise and effort. Through learning humans acquire competence in using their hereditary resources. Learning is a change in behavior in a specific situation due to experience in that situation. Human behavior in specific situation can change if they become tired or frustrated. Therefore, changes involve learning experiencing through out the lifespan. It is human psychology to not to repeat behaviors that are not liked by the peoples and repeat the behaviors the liked ones.
Cognitive perspective influencing human behavior:
The process of acquiring learning was much under the influence of behaviorist psychologists of 20th century, chief among them was Skinner who saw that human behavior is powerfully shaped by its consequences. According to him psychology was basically a behavior approach which was largely determined by its results. While Skinnerian methods have been effective in learning how to train animals and helping human beings in modification of their behavior, the behaviorists fell short of what is most important in education for most educators. We must formulate such policies to educate students which may help to develop strategies for learning. Cognitive perspective focuses on the process of human perception, thought, and memory. It portrays learners as active processors of information- a metaphor borrowed from the computer world—and assigns critical roles to the knowledge and perspective students bring to their learning. What learners do, enriches information, in the view of cognitive psychology, determines the level of understanding they ultimately achieve. It is appropriate that Bruning borrows from the computer world in his definition of cognitive psychology. As you will see in the educational applications surveyed in the multimedia computers which provide a powerful environment for helping achieve the goal of the cognitive movement in education. As emphasized by Piaget, students learn better when they can invent knowledge through inquiry and experimentation instead of acquiring facts presented by a teacher in class.
Social and cultural influences on human behavior:
Social concepts or concepts relating to people and social situations usually develop slightly later than self-concepts. The baby and young child are ego-centric, and their interests center more on themselves than on other. But as we develop in adulthood, we learn a lot from the environmental influences, our homes, our peers and conditions prevailing in the surroundings where we live. These all situations demand our responsibilities to act and react in order to assimilate ourselves in the foregoing conditions and be an acceptable member of such an environment. Becoming socialized involves, firstly, learning to behave in socially acceptable ways. Every social group has its standards of what is approved behavior for its members. To become socially acceptable we must not only know what this approved behavior is, but we must also model our own behavior along the approved lines. Secondly, every social group has its own patterns of customary behavior that are carefully defined and are expected by members of the social group. There are approved roles, for example, for parents and children and for teachers and pupils. Thirdly, to become socialized, we must like people and social activities. If we do, we will make good social adjustments and be accepted as members of the social group with which we are identified.
The psychodynamic theory of Segmund Freud, brought a revolution in personality dynamics in early 20th century. It consists of Biological analysis of child behavior and its influence in the development of personality in the later stages. It is based on the preschool years study, in which the role of instincts and motivation is considered of prime importance. Freud’s thesis consists on biological forces like, hunger, thirst, and sex and their role especially with other family member as a driving force in shaping the personality. According to Freud the role of developing personality is based on three characterists i.e. Id, Ego, and superego each of which changes with the course of development in personality in the infant. The role of Id is based on the acquisition of immdeiate pleasures when infant enjoys in eating, sucking and biting and satisfies his immediate needs. This is Oral Stage which covers the first year of life. In the second year the needs change and rational controlling forces emerge when the parents are concerned to give toilet training, and then an Anal Stage begins when the child takes interest in anal activities and so on.