Addictive behaviors are complex patterns which greatly characterize human activity. There are many behaviors reflecting addiction for instance alcohol and drug abuse, some disgusting eating habits, excessive sexual behaviors as well compulsive gambling. Addiction exists in many disciplines for instance chemistry, sociology, biology, psychology, psychiatry and medicine among many other fields. At the moment biological interventions are being used to solve this issue. For example biologically interventions are being used in order to understand alcoholism. Researchers are out to identify the neurological and genetic factors that contribute to addiction. By exploring biological causative to the addiction problem scientists have come to realize that cultural and social factors are very important in development of addiction. For instance it is very interesting to realize that not all people with alcoholism disorder had predisposed alcohol genetics. Therefore some individuals become alcohol addicts though they were not prone to alcoholism bio-genetically. This intervention implicates that psychological and social forces greatly determines those people who can develop these addictive behaviors and those who will not.
Most people tend to view drugs as addictive though that is not usually the case. For instance tobacco packages always warn its users that it is addictive yet people go ahead and use it. It is important to realize that drugs are not usually addictive though if misused can become. The relationship between the specific object of addiction and the person usually results into addictive behaviors. For instance drugs always have the capacity to initiate primary dependence and that is why when one fails to use them there is always the abstinence syndrome like neuro-adaptation. Evidence that has been obtained through research indicates that neuro adaption only occurs because of addictive behavior. This behavior may indicate things like gambling which usually do not need ingesting psychoactive components or substances. Despite the fact that neuroadaptation is as a result of several repetitive behavior it is important to realize that this does not equate it to addiction (Kaufman, 1994: 7).
Tolerance and withdrawal clearly indicates dependence to something. For instance patients who are allowed to use narcotics for elimination of pain after major operation never show addictive behavior despite the fact that they are physically dependant on such substances. Therefore drug abuse cannot not be satisfactorily eliminated when addiction come to an end because some addictive patterns and behavior like sexual addiction always find there way in absence of aspects like misuse of drugs. For this reason addiction is a measurable shift in behavior pattern as opposed to experience change in qualitative aspects. For instance addicts tend to loose interests in things which were important to them and start concentrating on behaviors which were of less importance. Unbalanced relationships are what characterize addiction. Until today there is no clear definition for addiction and this has remained a major obstacle for development of effective treatment needed to help its culprits.
There are many shortcomings that are being experienced by clinicians and researchers because of the absence of a clear definition for addiction and this is bound to remain this way. For instance clinicians often experience difficulties in matching treatment and diagnostics. As a result effective and successive treatment results are bound to remain elusive. Besides that this problem has led to difficulties in forming regulatory laws which health care systems are supposed to operate from. Average people are also included in this issue because they fail to distinguish addiction from obsession, dedication, interest and even compulsion. Finally the similarities and differences in addiction process and habits cannot be clearly defined without a proper definition of what addiction stand for. This basically means that the existing models do not effectively define what addiction is and as a result they may not effectively handle issues arising because of addiction (Kaufman, 1994: 7).
Many definitions which have been brought forth to explain what addiction is all about have left many clinicians and researchers confused because they are not sure if the patients using drugs also abuse it. Most treatment programs which have been developed usually confuse drug users to be drug abusers and therefore addiction cannot be effectively handled when such mistakes are still uncorrected. This confusion usually leads to increased medical expenses as a result of unnecessary hospitalization, mistrust of caregivers by patients as well as failure of administration of proper medication. Therefore practice guidelines as far as addiction is concerned remain in great chaos. Despite the consequences and outcome of addiction not all addiction victims become impaired in their day to day life. There are many clinical disorders which are severe that result from substance addiction when compared to process addiction like gambling though the effects of sexual addiction may also be tremendous.
Advanced constructions of addiction also indicate that all patients who are physically dependent on drugs do not usually show addictive habits or behaviors. At times physical dependence and neuro adaptation may emerge even when one is not using psychoactive drugs. From this implication it is important to understand that the emotional attachment which occurs because of certain repetitive behavior can greatly determine whether one becomes an addict or not. By the fact that addiction can result in absence or presence of dependence to substance and processes, then a suitable definition is to be wide to include a wide range of factors. Objects of addiction are basically things which enormously changes subjective experiences. The ability of such things to change subjective experience largely varies from one person to another.
Addiction theories have greatly changed. For instance different models are applied in different regions and on addition to that practitioners and clinicians always use models which they are comfortable with. Theoretical models which are recognized by the state and the licensing board may be greatly applied. Besides that the recommended and functioning theoretical models greatly vary from each other so there are many factors which determine the model that will be employed for examination. The common factors contributing to addictions include cultural, environmental, and interpersonal factors on addition to genetic composition (Miller, 2004: 8)