Questions essay

Question1. Aspect of your development that differs from a parent's or a grandparent

Child development was largely ignored in the past thorough out the recent past. In our parents, time children were largely viewed as small version of adults. Little attention was accorded to them when cognitive abilities language usage and the general physical development of the children. The serious interest in the child development was begun in the 20th century and at first, it tended to focus on the abnormal developmental behavior of the child.

 Parents and guardians understanding of the child's development is very important as it will give way for the understanding of the cognitive , emotional , physical and the social developement of the child. It is also essential in the understanding of the educational development of the child from the time of birth to the time of development into the early adulthood. Most recently developed theories in child development are focused in outlining the typical stages of development of the child. Current development of the child is focused in the developmental stages of the child at varied ages of development.

Hereditary factors and environmental factors affect the physical development of the child. Most scientists think that it is a combination of both environmental and hereditary factors that determine the physical development of the child. During our parents, age there was no serious consideration on the factors that affect the development of the child. The environment has a rule of determining the physical characteristics of a child development. Due to the growing industrialization and climate change, pollutants and chemicals affect the physical development of the fetus and the early childhood development while they are still in the wombs of their mothers, which can lead to mutations, or ineffective development of the fetus into a child. 

Using influences highlighted by the lifespan perspective, explain this diversity in development.

Lifespan development is the lifelong development of a child. It also includes the lifelong development of child development oil self evidently concerned with the physical and general development of people.  Lifespan development encompasses all the stages of development that we go throughout a life course.

Distinguish among age-graded, history-graded, and non-normative influences on your lifespan development

Normative age graded influence on the development of a child includes the influences that consists of the biological and the environmental determinants of development that are directly related to the chronological development of the child's age. These factors are non-normative largely that they do not vary so much between individuals. Their timing and duration are similar for most individuals. These influences examples' include factors such as maturation events, which include the changes in the height endocrine system functions and the central nervous system. They also include socialization factors such as marriage, childbirth and retirement.

Normative history graded influences consists of the biological and the environmental factors that are influential determinants that are correlated to the historical time. They are non-normative and most members of a birth cohort experience them. These include groups of people who share a common birth year or those who were born around a specific historical event such as world war.

Non-normative life event variables include those variables that are not directly indexed by time and these influences do not occur for all the groups of peoples. When these non-normative influences occur, they are likely to differ in their clustering, duration and timing. Examples of these non-normative variables include factors such as illness, divorce, promotion death of a spouse and others.

Identify the factors that will support the development of trust.

The first stage of psychological development of a child occurs between birth and the first year of development. This is the most fundamental stage of development in a human's life.  The development of trust in a child is dependent on the caregivers of the child. It also depends on the quality and the attention that child receives from the parents. Children develop trust on their caregivers since they spend most of their time with them. They develop feelings of protection and ownership.  When the child finally develops trust on   someone, will feel safe and secure. The caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable for the child or those who reject the emotions of the child they therefore contribute to the development of mistrust by the child. The failure the develop trust will result in fear for the child and the it leads to the believe that the world is full of inconsistency and unpredictability.

Question 2. Attachment and its role

Attachment is the link that develops between an infant and the primary caregivers. It I considered as the enduring emotional tie that an infant normally forms towards their primary caregivers. Attachment is necessary for the development of the child and it is necessary for in ensuring that there is an existing relationship style, which is necessary in fostering infant's survival. Attachment plays an important role as the style and the quality on of attachment determines the development of the child. They influence their characteristic behavior during their childhood and early adult hood development. Caregivers win a consistent attachment with their infants as they are always there responding to crying and feeding when hungry.

They offer physical content and comfort during stress. If these needs are met constantly, a secure attachment will develop and the infants learn to expect the caregiver's responsiveness and dependability. Some research has revealed that infant ternperament and attachment style are related. This relation suggests that temperament can influence the attachment style. A temperamentally difficult child is difficult to care for and they are less satisfied than the easygoing infants are. These infants increase the burden that is required in care for these infants. They also tend to have inconsistent sleeping and crying habits. This will lead to the development of negative attitudes of the caregivers towards the child. In turn, the child develops insecure attachment towards the caregivers.

Three different attachment patterns include:

1. Secure

2. Avoidant

3. Resistant and disorganized

Secure

In this pattern the infants uses caregivers as the sources of security and as the basis for exploration. They tend to protest the departure of the caregivers and seek proximity comfort. Strangers may comfort them but they show clear preference for the caregivers. The caregivers' in turn responds appropriately, in a consistent and prompt manner. The caregiver successfully forms as parental attachment with the infant.

Avoidant

At this stage, the infant displays little attachment to the caregivers and in turn shows no little distress in departure. They tend to treat strangers in the same way to the caregivers. The child at this stage feels less attachment and therefore is more rebellious and has a low self-image. The caregivers show little or no response to the distressed child and discourage crying whilst encouraging independence.

Resistance and disorganized

At this pattern, the child is unable to use the caregiver as the secure base. They tend to be preoccupied in the presence of the caregiver and are not easily calmed by strangers. Caregivers start to become inconsistent in responses and will generally only respond to the child after increased attachment.  The child becomes disorganized in their ideas.

Question 3.  Physical activities and hazards involved in participation.

There are many different types of physical activities that children engage in such as

Children can engage in sports.

There are different sport games that many children engage in such as multi sport events that are organized by the community or the school. There are also Olympic Games. Olympic Games include summer Olympic Games and winter Olympic Games. These games are necessary in ensuring that the child developed fully in their minds and they learn to develop trust between friends. They also learn the environment and they may start developing interests. Children can still engage in surprise games. Children in their early toddler stage of development learn about the element of surprise. They find fun in surprise and surprising others. Hide and seek is the classical game that these children like to engage in. this can also be played by children that are 3-5 years of age and they enjoy surprise upon being discovered by  their opponents or when they discover the other person hiding .

Two imaginative play.

Imaginative play for children is a non-structured form of play that children use their own imaginations to create games. Children aged between three to five years of age engage in imaginative play. They do not need to be prompted to come up with the game. A child who is four years of age can pick up a stick and pretend it to be as sword. They create things from the things that they see from the environment such as picking ideas from the television. He might play with the stick pretending that it is a sword, and starts to pretend that his older brother or sister is knight and he must fight. Imaginative play is very important and it is very crucial for the cognitive and creative development.

Arts and craft activities

Children may find it interest in arts and crafts activities. Many children aged between 3-5 years enjoy arts and craft activities because they get chance to get create something that is new that they can keep or give away to someone special. For these young kids they find pleasure in creating their own things and it gives them a sense of satisfaction. It also gives them a sense of persona accomplishment. Children find fun and it can be stimulating to see bright colors of paint the sticky feel of glue and making designs from brightly colored and sparkling. Caregivers and schools that have arts and crafts area in their home area in schools; preschool or daycare class room are very important. It is observed that the presence of arts and crafts supplies in the area gravitates the kids towards the arts and crafts supplies. It develops the visual the color differentiation in the child.

Fun games

Fun games such as running around, jumping, leaping and hopping or skipping with the friends. Kids who are ages between 3 to 5 years of age can turn play activities into fun games. Children may create their own physical activities in their playground at the back yards of homes without minimal prompting from their caretakers. For examples, the presence of three cracks in the cement around the home can act as an inspiration for the kids to start playing around. Tournaments where they run and leap over the cracks can be stimulating for the kids. Children may organize tag running races and other types of games and enjoy playing them.

Musical games

Songs and other musical games that involve singing are more exiting for young kids. By simply playing with music makes, they start to dance and wiggle around the compound or in play fields. Children also enjoy instructional musical activities and games that they involve circles and jumping around such as Head, shoulders, knees and toes. This helped the children to develop their coordination and social lives (Barbara & Newman, 2008). 

Give five suggestions about how parents and caregivers can keep children reasonably safe while still letting them take on some new challenges in negotiating their environment.

1. Parents should ensure that their children play within a range that they can be able to them so that they can be aware of what is going on in their children lives.

2. Parents should let their children select the friends' that they choose to play with to ensure that they form the concept of socializing on their own

3. Caretakers should encourage their children to participate in the games of their choice that they like more. They should not restrict them because of dirt since it is a process of self-realization.

4. Parents should guide and teach their children on how to deal with strangers, such that they should never accept candies from strangers. This will give confidence to the parents to allow the children to play within the yard without the fear of being kidnapped.

5. Parents should act as role models to their children as young children will tend to copy all the things that are happening around them.

Quiz 4. Describe Piaget's formal operations stage of cognitive development.

Formal operation stage begins approximately at twelve years and it lasts through adulthood. During this time of development, the adolescents are able to develop ability to think about abstract concepts. Several skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning of the adolescent and develop the power of having a systemic planning in their activities.

Piaget believed that logic becomes an important consideration during this stage of development. Logic thinking involves hypothetical thinking in situations that is required in science and mathematics subjects in school.

The ability to think about abstract concepts emerges during the formal operational stage. At this stage, the children start considering possible out comes when they get involved in activities and the consequences of all the actions begin to develop in them. This type of thinking is important in the child for the long term planning of their life.

Children at this stage start developing the ability to systematically solve problems in a logical manner and they are able to follow a methodological straightforward manner. Unlike in earlier stages of child development, children used trial and error method.

Describe Elkind's views on adolescent cognitive development

According to Elkind, adolescent cognitive development has played an important role in development of self-consciousness that is common in early adolescent. Elkind believes that it is during adolescent stage that the children discover the uniqueness of their feelings and experiences that they go through every day. Elkind stresses that this concept is very important on treating adolescents that are stressed. He believes that egocentrism reduces by a greater margin as the cognitive development proceeds. Elkind has turned his attention on education methods and how current changes in the society affects the cognitive development of the child. He brings out the role of family unit in the development of the child (Hermes, 2002).

Development of immature thoughts in adolescents is associated the cognitive development procedure .Elkind believes that adolescents at this stage are able to represent other peoples thoughts as distinct from their own and therefore decentre themselves. Adolescents may have immature thoughts about serious issues such as sexual knowledge. They may judge this according to their own point of view.

Question 5. Cohabitation

Research has showed that couples who cohabit without the intention of marrying are forming unstable living arrangements, which can result in negative effects on their emotional, physical, and the financial well-being. It has also been found that these arrangements can have serious problems when it comes to rising of children, which is seen in most families of cohabiting parents.

Negative effects of cohabitation will affect more those couples who expect to have the same returns in their cohabitation deal to be the same with the marriage bargain. The need for cohabitation has a negative effect since in the case of end of the relationship, there are no legal ties between the couple therefore sharing of properly and children will be more difficult and complicated.

 Research has also showed that most cohabiting relationships are childless and incase he is planning to have children in future it can lead to many problems. Most religions stand against cohabiting and therefore if he is brought up in a church setting he will not be going against the church laws.

In his case, he is moving in with his parents, which will lead to communal living. As much as the parents might be able to accept the deal, it may lead to conflicts with the other family members. In case of any problem like the girlfriend being sick, he is supposed to assume responsibility and it might be hard for him as he is fully dependent on his parents (Graham, 1999).

The Researchers have also found out that parenting role of the cohabiting parents towards their children is vaguely defines. This makes the deal of cohabiting an unstable living arrangement for the children. The father in many cases has no legal rights, financial rights over the children hence making the children to be unsecure.

Marriage has been seen to foster certain behavioral changes and it has been seen that it is hard for the family members to loan money to cohabiting partners. Parents of the cohabiting partners may dissolve the relationship within a short time if it is not formalized hence it is not encouraged by most parents. Children of cohabiting parents always make sure that their parents break up when they reach the sixteen years of age. Since there is no commitment between the partners who cohabit together it so easy for one of the partners to walk out of the relationship with much ease. The partner will feel insecure, as cohabitation has no security unlike marriage setting. When a man cohabits with a woman, he may have higher chances of extra marital relationship as there is nothing that shows that they are married (Lerner, 2002).

In cohabiting parents, there is no equal division of labor and the women tend to assume more roles of cooking and cleaning even if they work full time and earn more than their partners earn. The methods that he can use with his girlfriend to ensure that they are for each other without having to cohabit  include  engagement, declaring their commitment to their parents, setting out limits such as fixing the year for their marriage and finally making sure that they meet frequently. Attending guidance and counseling might also do some good to them. The other way that they can use to ensure that they keep together can be to go and swear by an oath this will ensure that they never separate.

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