Projective Test is a personality test where individuals offer their responses to ambiguous words, scenes or even responses. The psychoanalytic school of thought that contributed to the emergence of this test suggested that, many individuals have thoughts or urges that are unconscious in nature. The aim of these tests is to uncover the unconscious desires that are hidden from the conscious awareness (Kaufman, 2009, p. 221). The first projective test was the Rorschach Inkblot, which was developed in 1921 by one psychiatrist known as Rorschach Hermann from Swiss. The main aim of this kind of test is to be able to describe the aspects associated to a person’s character that usually remain stable throughout his/her lifetime, pattern of behavior, feelings and thoughts. In this psychological test, it is difficult to interpret the test scores in o direct sense. As such, substantial efforts by producers are made, in order to produce normative data that is able to provide a comparative basis to be used in interpreting the test scores of respondents. The most common normative data applied include the percentile ranks, sten scores, and z scores among other standardized test scores. Therapists using this test learn the qualitative information concerning their clients (Cordon, 2005, p. 202).
Achievement Tests are designed to evaluate units during the teaching and learning process in educational systems. It is a test of developed skill or knowledge and measures the learned skills and knowledge in a given level of grade, through planned instructions like, classroom training and instructions. Another role played by achievement tests is to assess the student’s proficiency by giving them better teaching practices. Content, criterion-related and construct validity are the most common strategies applied to such standardized tests (Cordon, 2005, p. 201). Validation and reliability strategies applied to achievement tests should be able to perform its job specification requirements at all times. They should also be used for their intended purposes. The normative data for such tests are determined by the ability of the student to achieve a high or low score. A student with high scores of achievement indicates that, they have mastered the grade material required and are ready for any advanced instructions. Those with low scores should be given remedial training or repeat the course grade (Cordon, 2005, p. 203). Administrators of such tests should be highly skilled especially since it requires them to motivate and encourage their learners on the importance of carrying out such tests. They should have the experience required to face the variety of individuals present in the society and learning institutions (Cordon, 2005, p. 204).
Intelligence Test is a standardized test used in establishing levels of intelligence rating by measuring the ability of a subject to form concepts, acquire information, solve problems perform intellectual operations and reason (Sternberg, 2003, p. 5). In 1905, Alfred Binet, Victor Henri, and Simon Theodore are psychologists who came together and published the Binet-Simon test. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory has greatly influenced the intelligence tests performed by researchers (Kaufman, 2009, p. 220). Its major focus was on verbal abilities as explicated by schoolchildren with mental retardation. The statistical reliability of such psychometrics is high for test-takers, while for clinical psychologists, the statistical validity is sufficient and meets many of the clinical purposes. Those administering these tests should have high levels of intelligence quotient in order to be of sound judgment when performing their tests (Kaufman, 2009, p. 222).
The instruments mentioned above are all inter-related with each other. This is the reason as to why I chose to use qualitative methods in choosing the best three tests for discussion. Intelligence, projective and achievement tests all concern the same people and should be used wisely in order to get valid and accurate results at the end. These instruments serve different purposes, but they are tools to be appreciated as they approximate the levels and degree of individuals in a learning environment. They aid administrators in evaluating the performance of their subjects and therefore, growth of test-takers abilities is displayed.