The evolution of Crew Resource Management (CRM) in the aviation industry is regarded by many as a major breakthrough for the human factors issue in Aviation Maintenance and Management. The basic reason for deriving this conclusion is that the Crew Resource Management program provides close interaction among persons who deal in scientific issues and the others who handle procedures and applications. Scientists have helped out a great deal in developing CRM (Crew Resource Management) in both practical and theoretical manner. The practitioners have implemented CRM very effectively due to which they are able to successfully coordinate among the crew. The Crew Resource Management program has also integrated the technology in to the aviation industry very well regardless of the financial and organizational issues of the industry. Besides this, the Aviation Industry now warmly welcomes the researchers to actively participate in the development of the training programs, due to the CRM framework. Crew Resource Management has enabled the Aviation Industry to grow more progressively and swiftly than anyone could have expected. Another success of CRM is that it not only develops but also evaluates the training program.
Resource Management Skills are very important skills to acquire in the Aviation Industry. The Aviation Staff is trained for Resource Management Skills with the help of the costly Full Flight Simulators. These Full Flight Simulators provide very realistic and interactive simulation to the Airline Crew due to which they are able to practice their weak Resource Management Skills and thereby, they manage to improve their skills for the resource management. But still Full Flight Simulators are not accepted as the perfect method of providing this skill training. A newer approach towards Resource Management Skills is Performance Assessment on the basis of the team level rather than the individual level. This means that every member of the team holds the responsibility of the performance of the team. Personnel are also rated with respect to the overall efforts of their respective teams. The Performance Assessment based on the team level is especially concerned when performing a task that is highly dependent on the collective team effort. Such tasks require discussing the team component of the Resource Management Skill in detail. It is very easy to identify what is wrong with the team’s output but very difficult to suggest the proper training method to improve the performance of the team. Tests are also taken which consists of diagnostic questions which also help to evaluate the proficiency of one’s Resource Management Skills. But still nothing much is done to improve this level of Resource Management Skills. This lacking has been identified and currently organizations are addressing this issue to be solved by taking important steps towards developing Resource Management Skills Training. Recent researches regarding factors and activities within the organization that influence the job performance of a person, are taken in to account by the Aviation Industry. Supportive organizational and socio-cultural environment is provided within the organization to improve the job performance by improving the Management Resource Skills of the employees. Individual and collective skills can be strengthened through the Airline’s operating philosophy and policy.
The old skill-components model should be replaced by the new professional model in order to enhance the quality of the performing job. The skill-components model provided limited roles to the workforce. In this model, the worker’s performance is determined and evaluated on the basis of the tasks assigned to him or her. This model gives control and power to the manager to identify and design the skill standards. Usually, the management hires analysts to evaluate the skills of a person. On the other hand, the Professional model suggests that the worker has the authority to make decisions and handle the non-routine tasks on his own. In this model, the worker is in charge of the work where as the organization identifies the skills of a worker and then assigns him for the job accordingly. Thus, the Airlines should better switch to the Professional Model and hence, make use of their Skill Identification Methods to carry out the skill standards at the working environment. Due to the implementation of the Professional Model, the Skill Analysis Methods have evolved from its usual ISD approach, which used to include only two or more analysts, to a wider perspective that involves a variety of representatives coming from various departments and fields of the airline. There are two avenues that lead towards the establishment of the team which identifies the Resource Management Skills. The first approach is to carry out the initial rating sessions of the SME (Subject Matter Expert) representatives belonging from the most important departments and then pick up only those people as team members who share a common perspective regarding the understanding of the theoretical and empirical requirements of the Resource Management Skills. The second techniques is to hold an elementary session to bring about a general consent area(s) among all the candidates and thereby, figure out the area(s) where more consensus is needed to be built. The former technique seems to be more effective but it can even eliminate some parts of the Airline System from the Skill Analysis Method. Whereas the second technique involves everyone to work as a team to establish a better level of consensus that will affirm broad representation throughout the Airline and it should be able to generate better output from the team that is accepted by almost the entire organization. It is then the responsibility of the Airline organization to ensure that after the Resource Management Skills have been identified then the respective personnel will be provided proper training and assessment. Moreover, the Airline must establish the suitable policies through philosophy and incentives to always keep the individuals and the team motivated and enthusiastic to maintain and improve their Resource Management Skills.
There are many essential points which the worker should make use of in creating his basic approach towards the training and assessment of his Resource Management Skills. Since, the real skills are acquired and hence, enhanced within an individual worker only such as the pilot, the mechanic, etc. The individual should be well aware of his skill level while choosing the appropriate Skill Analysis Method to make sure that the acquired skills would be easily compatible with the job structures. Task structures are usually designated at the individual level.
The team level essentially requires improving individual skill assessment especially in cases where the Resource Management Assessment is done on the basis of the team’s evaluation and not on the basis of the individual performance only. In such working environment where the overall performance and rating of the team is accredited largely due to the team effort, every member of the team holds a great responsibility for his team’s ranking. Therefore, the skills should also be considered and treated at the team level to provide the teams with fair deal to practice, establish and refine their Resource Management Skills. The Airline must necessarily assess, diagnose, acknowledge and put to practice the newly identified Resource Management Skills in order to make these new team level skills grow strong. Last but not the least; the Airline should properly implement the Resource Management Skills.